Law School Rules

Chapter 3. Course Rules

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3.01 First-Year Program.

(1) All first year students must take the following courses and must complete the full program indicated below, except as provided in 3.02, and may not take additional law courses.

1st Semester 2nd Semester
  • Contracts I - 4 credits
  • Civil Procedure I - 4 credits
  • Criminal Law - 4 credits*
  • Legal Research & Writing I - 3 credits* 

* Notes:
-Criminal Law was a 3-credit course in Fall 2012.
- Legal Research & Writing I was taken in the 2nd Semester by students matriculating in 2010 and 2011.

 

  • Property - 4 credits
  • Torts I - 4 credits*
  • Legal Research & Writing II - 3 credits*
  • Elect two* of the following:
    • Contracts II - 3 credits
    • Civil Procedure II - 3 credits
    • Legal Process - 3 credits
    • International Law - 3 credits
    • Constitutional Law I - 3 credits*
    • Criminal Procedure - 3 credits*
    • other course(s) as designated

    * Notes:
    -Torts I, formerly a 1st Semester course, became a 2nd Semester course starting in the 2013-2014 Academic Year; Torts I was a 3-credit course in Fall 2012.
    - Choosing two 2nd-Semester electives became a requirement of the First-Year Program with the 2013-2014 Academic Year; formerly one elective was chosen which was not a required course under Rule 3.02(1)(a).
    - Constitutional Law I and Criminal Procedure were required (non-elective) parts of the First-year Program until the 2013-2014 Academic Year.
    - Legal Research & Writing II was taken in the 3rd Semester for students matriculating in 2010 and in the 3rd/4th Semester for students matriculating in 2011.

(2) All entering students must attend a series of orientation lectures preceding the opening of regular classes in the fall.

3.02 First-Year Program: Required Courses and Reduced Program.

(1) A student who desires to carry less than the full program indicated in Rule 3.01 must obtain permission from the Dean to carry a reduced load. After consulting with the student about the student's needs, the Dean shall grant such permission subject only to the following conditions:
(a) The courses in Contracts I, Torts I, Civil Procedure I, Criminal Law,  Property, both semesters of Legal Research & Writing, and two first-year electives must be taken and completed within two years from the date of matriculation; and
(b) The requirements of Rule 3.01(2) must be met; and
(c) No second or third year course other than the electives listed in Rule 3.01 may be taken prior to completion of the courses listed in paragraph (a).
(2) To avoid hardship, the Dean may exercise discretion in applying Rule 3.02.

3.03 Legal Process Requirement. Each candidate for a J.D. degree shall earn credit for at least one course which focuses on evaluation of the legal system as a whole. Courses which will satisfy this requirement include Legal Process, Sociology of Law, Jurisprudence and seminars in Jurisprudence, American Legal History, Law & Contemporary Problems: Law and Population, Social Theory of Law, Selected Problems in Jurisprudence: Law Society and State, and any other course which the Dean, after consultation with the Curriculum Committee, determines will fulfill the purpose of this requirement.

3.04 Diploma Privilege Requirements.

(1) In order for a student to be certified for admission to the Wisconsin Bar under the diploma privilege created by Supreme Court Rule 40.03, the student must have fulfilled the following requirements:
(a) Received the J.D. degree from this law school.
(b) While a candidate for the J.D. degree, earned a weighted average of 77 (on 65-95 scale) or 2.0 (on 4.3 scale) in the 30 credits with the highest grades from each of the following subject areas, counting at least one course in each area:
  • Constitutional Law
  • Ethics and Legal Responsibilities of the Legal Profession
  • Contracts
  • Pleading and Practice
  • Criminal Law and Procedure
  • Real Property
  • Evidence
  • Torts
  • Jurisdiction of Courts
  • Wills and Estates
(c) While a candidate for the J.D. degree, earned a weighted average of 77 (on 65-95 scale) or 2.0 (on 4.3 scale) in the 60 credits with the highest grades (which may include those used to satisfy (b)) from the following subject areas:
  • Administrative Law
  • Appellate Practice and Procedure
  • Commercial Transactions
  • Conflict of Laws
  • Constitutional Law
  • Contracts
  • Corporations
  • Creditor's Rights
  • Criminal Law and Procedure
  • Damages
  • Domestic Relations
  • Equity
  • Evidence
  • Future Interests
  • Insurance
  • Jurisdiction of Courts
  • Labor Law
  • Legislation
  • Ethics and Legal Responsibility of the Profession
  • Partnership
  • Personal Property
  • Pleading and Practice
  • Public Utilities
  • Quasi-Contracts
  • Real Property
  • Taxation
  • Torts
  • Trade Regulation
  • Trusts
  • Wills and Estates

(2) From time to time the Dean shall publish a list of courses which are deemed to cover material falling within these subject areas.

Cross-reference. See Appendix A, p. 34, for a list of courses deemed to satisfy the 60-credit rule.

3.05 Dual Degree Program in Law and Public Affairs.

(1) A student who has satisfactorily completed the first year's work in law school and is enrolled in the dual Law School - La Follette School of Public Affairs Program may apply 15 credits of La Follette core courses toward the J.D. degree, provided that:

(a) The student must have received a grade of B or better in each such course;
(b) The student must have completed all requirements for the degree of Master of Public Affairs or Master of International Public Affairs (MIPA).

(2) A student who wishes to receive the J.D. degree but who has not completed all requirements for the M.A. degree may count only 6 of such credits toward the J.D. degree.

(3) The MPA or MIPA degree may be started before or after the student's admission to law school, but only those La Follette credits earned within a two-year period preceding the date of admission to law school and earned within six years prior to the date of the J.D. degree may be counted toward satisfaction of the J.D. degree requirements; and the student must be simultaneously enrolled in courses in both the Law School and La Follette for at least some portion of such six year period.

(4) A student who wants to use this 15-credit rule should notify the Law School office as soon as possible.

3.05.1 Dual Degree Program in Law and Library and Information Studies.

(1) A student who has satisfactorily completed the first year's work in law school and is enrolled in the joint Law School-School of Library and Information Studies Program for Law Librarianship may apply nine credits of relevant graduate-level SLIS courses toward the J.D. degree, provided that the student receives a grade of B or better in each such course;

(2) The M.A. in  Library and Information Studies degree may be started before or after the student's admission to law school, but only those SLIS credits earned within a two-year period preceding the date of admission to law school and earned within six years prior to the date of the J.D. degree may be counted toward satisfaction of the J.D. degree requirements, and the student must be simultaneously enrolled in courses in both the Law School and the School of Library and Information Studies for at least some portion of that six-year period.

3.05.2 Dual Degree Program in Law and Ibero-American Studies.

(1) A student who has satisfactorily completed the first year's work in law school and is enrolled in the joint Law School - Program may apply 15 credits of Ibero-American core courses toward the J.D. degree, provided that:

(a) The student must have received a grade of B or better in each such course;
(b) The student must have completed all requirements for the degree of M.A. in Ibero-American Studies.

(2) A student who wishes to receive the J.D. degree but who has not completed all requirements for the M.A. degree may count only 6 of such credits toward the J.D. degree.

(3) The M.A. degree may be started before or after the student's admission to law school, but only those institute credits earned within a two-year period preceding the date of the J.D. degree may be counted toward satisfaction of the J.D. degree requirements; and the student must be simultaneously enrolled in courses in both the Law School and the Ibero-American Studies Program for at least some portion of such six year period.

(4) A student who wants to use this 15-credit rule should notify the Law School office as soon as possible.

3.05.3 Dual Degree Program in Law and Business Master's Degree.

(1) A student who has satisfactorily completed the first year's work in law school and is enrolled in the joint Law School — Business Master's program may apply 15 credits of Business core courses toward the J.D. degree, provided that:

(a) The student must be received a grade of B or better in each course;
(b) The student must have completed all requirements for the Masters' Degree in Business.

(2) A student who wishes to receive the J.D. degree but who has not completed all requirements for the Masters' degree may count only 6 of such credits toward the J.D. degree.

(3) The Masters' degree may be started before or after the student's admission to law school, but only those business courses earned within a two-year period preceding the date of admission to law school and earned within six years prior to the date of the J.D. degree may be counted toward satisfaction of the J.D. degree requirements; and the student must be simultaneously enrolled in courses in both the Law School and the Business School for at least some portion of such six year period.

(4) A student who wants to use this 15-credit rule should notify the Law School office as soon as possible.

3.05.4 Dual Degree Program in Law and Environmental Studies.

(1) A student who has satisfactorily completed the first year's work in the law school and is enrolled in the joint Law School — Institute for Environmental Studies Program may apply 15 credits of Institute core courses toward the J.D. degree, provided that:

(a) The student must have received a grade of B or better in each such course;
(b) The student must have completed all requirements for the degree of M.S. in Land Resources, Water Resources Management, Environmental Monitoring or Conservation Biologist and Sustaining Direction;
(c) "Core course" are courses which apply only toward an M.S. and are approved by the Dean of the Law School.

(2) A student who wishes to receive the J.D. degree but who has not completed all requirements for the M.S. degree may count only 6 of such credits toward the J.D. degree.

(3) The M.S. degree may be started before or after the student's admission to Law School but only those Institute credits earned within a two-year period preceding the date of admission to Law School and earned within six years prior to the date of the J.D. degree may be counted toward satisfaction of the J.D. degree requirements; and the student must be simultaneously enrolled in both the Law School and the Institute for at least some portion of such six year period.

3.05.5 Dual Degree Program in Law and Public Health

(1)  A student who has satisfactorily completed the first year's work in law school and is enrolled in the dual Juris Doctor - Master of Public Health (JD-MPH) Program may apply 15 credits of MPH core courses toward the J.D. degree, provided that:

(a) The student must have received a grade of B or better in each such course;
(b) The student must have completed all requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health (MPH).

(2)  A student who wishes to receive the J.D. degree but who has not completed all requirements for the MPH degree may count only 6 of such credits toward the J.D. degree.

(3)  The MPH degree may be started before or after the student's admission to law school, but only those core MPH credits earned within a two-year period preceding the date of admission to law school and earned within six years prior to the date of the J.D. degree may be counted toward satisfaction of the J.D. degree requirements; and the student must be simultaneously enrolled in courses in both the Law School and the MPH for at least some portion of such six year period.

(4)  A student who wants to use this 15-credit rule should notify the Law School office as soon as possible.

3.06 Credits for Law Journal and Moot Court Work.

(1) This rule governs the award of academic credit for the moot court program and for all student edited law journals authorized by the faculty to award academic credit.

(2) Students who participate in Moot Court as contestants shall, upon satisfactory completion of the necessary work, receive three (3) credits in the semester in which they engaged in those activities; students who serve as coaches for moot court teams shall receive one (1) credit in the semester in which they perform those tasks.

(3) Students who write notes, comments, or similar pieces for law journals shall receive two (2) credits for each of two semesters provided

(a) the writing requirements of the journal conform to those currently employed by the Wisconsin Law Review (at least three drafts submitted for review by a panel of student editors); and
(b) in the first semester, the student writing is making acceptable progress including turning in required drafts, and with respect to the second semester, the final draft of the work is judged to be of publishable quality.

(4) Students performing editorial functions for the law journals and members of the executive board of the Moot Court shall receive up to three (3) credits a semester based on the hours of educationally beneficial work (as defined in 3.06(5) below) that they perform:

(a) 60 hours of educationally beneficial work are necessary for each credit;
(b) partial credits shall not be awarded, but hours earned in one semester can be carried over into the next semester and may be counted toward that semester's credits;
(c) work which is financially compensated shall not be eligible for academic credit;
(d) each student wishing to receive credit under this rule based on hours of educationally beneficial work shall be responsible for keeping a record of such work in the form the journal or moot court will have established in consultation with the academic credit reviewer and shall be responsible for reporting in timely manner the hours claimed;
(e) the editor-in-chief of each journal and the president of the moot court board shall provide to the academic credit reviewer a monthly report of hours reported by all applicable participants (the academic credit reviewer may modify this reporting requirement as needed).

(5) Educationally beneficial work is limited to the following:

(a) reading and evaluating articles submitted for publication;
(b) editing articles, including for content or style, and communicating with authors about editing decisions;
(c) writing and re-writing a student article or note as author to the extent not covered by 3.06(3), and editing such an article or note, whether or not it is actually published; and
(d) any other work that meets the general understanding of law school academic activity and is approved by the academic credit reviewer.

(6) The Dean shall name a faculty member to act as academic credit reviewer for the award of credits for activities on the various law journals and moot court program Under this rule. This individual shall consult with the advisors to the journals and moot court in determining what additional activities may constitute educationally beneficial work and shall communicate these decisions to the editors-in-chief of the various journals and the president of the moot court board.

3.07  Professional Skills Requirement.

Students who do not take Evidence must consult with the Dean's Office prior to their final semester to ensure they fulfill in some other way the applicable American Bar Association professional skills requirement.

3.08 Non-Law Courses.

(1) A student registered in the Law School as a candidate for a law degree who is taking a minimum of 7 law credits in a regular semester or 3 law credits in summer session may take and apply courses given by other schools at the University toward the degree of Doctor of Law (J.D.) under the following circumstances:

(a) The student must have completed the first year's work specified in 3.01, and
(b) The course is given at the graduate level or is an undergraduate course in conversational Spanish, and
(c) In the judgment of the Dean, the course is reasonably related both to the education of lawyers generally and to the student's career plans specifically and the student obtains the Dean's prior approval to take the course for law credit, and
(d) The grade received in the course is a "B" (or equivalent) or better. A grade of B- will not be accepted.

(2) No more than six (6) credits of such work can be counted toward the law degree. Up to ten (10) credits of such work can be counted if the student is enrolled in one of the Law School's Certificate of Concentration Programs or the Certificate in Russian Area Studies.

(3) A student may take such a course in Inter Session if the student was enrolled for at least seven (7) law credits in the preceding semester.

(4) A student who receives credit toward the J.D. degree under Rule 3.05 for work taken outside of law school may not receive credit under Rule 3.08.

(5) The Faculty, meeting on November 7, 1985, reaffirmed that this rule provides no basis for granting credit for work taken prior to enrollment in law school.

3.09 Abnormal Course Loads. Except by special permission of the Dean, no student may earn more than 19 credits in any one semester, or more than 15 credits in any summer session.

3.10 Lawyering Skills Program. A student must have earned at least 60 credits and have a weighted average of at least 77 (on 65-95 scale) or 2.0 (on 4.3 scale) to be eligible to take the Lawyering Skills Program.

3.11 Legal Research & Writing.

(1) This rule applies to any student who receives a grade of D or F in either semester of Legal Research and Writing, and who is eligible to continue or permitted to continue by the Retentions Committee under 7.01 or 7.05. This rule is effective as of the fall semester of 1994.

(a) A student who receives a D or F in the fall semester of Legal Research and Writing will not be permitted to continue the course in the spring semester. The student must retake the fall semester of the course the following year. If the student passes the fall semester course on the retake, then he or she must continue the course in the spring semester. If the student receives a D or F on the retake, then he or she will not be permitted to continue the course in the spring. The student will then be in violation of 3.02(1)(a) and must petition the Retentions Committee for permission to continue in Law School.
(b) A student who receives a D or F in the spring semester of Legal Research and Writing must retake the spring semester of the course the following year. If the student passes the spring semester course on the retake, then he or she will have completed the entire course as required by 3.02(1)(a). If the student receives a D or F on the retake, then he or she will be in violation of 3.02(1)(a) and must petition the Retentions Committee for permission to continue in Law School.

(2) A student will not receive additional credit for any semester for Legal Research and Writing that he or she retakes.

(3) The maximum grade a student may receive when retaking a semester of Legal Research and Writing shall be a C. The student is expected, however, to perform at a higher level than C work. Both the original grade for the semester and the grade received on the retake shall be entered on the student's record. The retake grade shall control for all purposes except honorary awards and election to Coif, as to which the original grade shall control.

(4) Any student who retakes a semester of the Legal Research and Writing course must meet all requirements for that semester of the course. These requirements include doing all assignments and complying with all course policies, including attendance and timeliness.

(5) A student may retake Legal Research and Writing under this section without exhausting his or her rewrite privilege under 6.09(1).

3.11.1 Upper-level Writing Requirement    J.D. candidates commencing law studies in Fall 2005 and thereafter are required to complete one rigorous writing experience subsequent to the completion of the First-Year Program.  Curricular activities meeting this requirement will be designated by the Dean.

3.12 Professional Responsibilities Requirement. To be eligible for a J.D. degree, a student must have earned credit in a course or courses which provide instruction in the duties and responsibilities of the legal profession. The Dean, after consulting with the Curriculum Committee, shall designate the courses which satisfy this requirement. This rule applies to candidates for the J.D. degree in December 1974 and thereafter.

3.13 Directed Research; Directed Reading.

(1) Directed research is similar to a seminar without regularly scheduled meetings and should always have a research paper as the end product. Directed reading is similar to a course without regularly scheduled meetings; achievement should always be tested through written work.

(2) Consent of the Dean's office is a prerequisite to registration for directed research or directed reading. Such consent shall be conditioned on the following:

(a) That the student has filed in the Dean's office a written statement, approved by the instructor, outlining the nature and objectives of the directed research or directed reading project, the procedures for faculty supervision, and the scheduled date of completion.
(b) That the directed research or directed reading project will not circumvent the rules governing clinical courses.

(3) The time for completion of the directed research or directed reading project shall normally be fixed by the instructor as no later than the end of the examination period for the particular semester or, if registration is in a summer session, the end of registration week for the following fall semester. In the event of illness or other similar change in circumstances, an instructor may extend the completion date, but not beyond the end of the next full semester following the semester or summer session in which the student registered for the directed research or directed reading. If a grade for the directed research or directed reading has not been turned in by the end of such next full semester, the Dean's office shall note on the student's record that the directed research or directed reading has been dropped. Such notation may not be changed even though the research or reading project is subsequently completed.

(4) For students who commenced law studies prior to 2005, directed research and directed reading may be graded either by letter or Satisfactory-Unsatisfactory, at the option of the instructor;  numerical grading shall not be used. For students who commenced law studies in 2005 and thereafter, directed research and directed reading will be graded on a Satisfactory-Unsatisfactory basis.

(5) No student may count more than 6 credits of directed research and 8 credits of directed reading toward satisfaction of the requirements for the J.D. degree. The Dean may make exceptions in extraordinary circumstances.

(6) This section takes effect as of the start of the 2nd semester of the 1977-78 academic year. Directed research or directed reading for which registration took place prior to that semester will continue to be governed by Rules 3.05 and 3.13 as set forth in the compilation of Law School Rules dated September 17, 1976.

3.14 Clinical Courses.

(1) "Clinical course" means a course in which the predominant course of instruction is supervised student law practice or clerking for a judge, and in which the needs of a client, someone in a position similar to a client, or a judge, determines to a significant degree the student's activities.

(2) "Internal" clinical courses are ones where the primary supervision of a student's work for which academic credit is to be given is performed by a member of the law school faculty or academic staff employed to provide such supervision. Internal clinical courses shall only be offered by a clinical program, headed by a director appointed by the faculty. The director is responsible for administering the academic program of that internal clinical course and the awarding of grades and credit for work done in an internal clinical course but may be assisted by other law school faculty or staff. An internal clinic that permits or requires student participation in activities away from the law school or in a format that does not involve attendance at regularly scheduled class sessions shall comply with all relevant requirements of subsection (4) (a) below.

(3) After January 1, 1996 new clinical programs shall be established only by vote of the faculty. Before a new clinical program is established, there shall be an academic plan describing the subject areas in which internal clinical courses will be offered by the clinical program. A clinical program may change its placements in its discretion within those subject areas, but should seek renewed faculty approval before offering placements in different subject areas. This subsection does not apply to new "externship" placements provided the provisions of subsection (4) are followed with respect to these placements.

(4) "External" clinical courses, or "externships" are ones where the on-site supervision of a student's work for which academic credit is given is typically performed by persons other than a member of the law school faculty or academic staff. Credits in external clinical courses shall be granted only after the externship has been approved by an externship director designated by the Dean as responsible for administering this subsection. Note: In externships in which supervision is exercised directly or indirectly by a faculty or staff member, the externship director will not exercise oversight except as directed by the Dean; such externships shall nevertheless comply with subsection (4) (a) below. The externship director shall be a member of the faculty or academic staff and shall ensure that all applicable ABA Standards with respect to field placement programs are complied with prior to granting externship academic credit.

(a) Such standards include:

     (1) a clear statement of the goals and methods, and a demonstrated relationship between those goals and methods to the program in operation;

     (2) adequate instructional resources, including faculty, staff and other teaching in and supervising the program who devote the requisite time and attention to satisfy program goals and are sufficiently available to students;

     (3) a clearly articulated method of evaluating each student's academic performance involving both faculty/staff member/externship director and the on-site field placement supervisor;

     (4) a method for selecting, training, evaluating, and communicating with on-site field placement supervisors;

     (5) periodic on-site visits or their equivalent by faculty/staff member/externship director if the field placement program awards four or more academic credits for field work in any academic term or if on-site visits or their equivalent are otherwise necessary and appropriate;

     (6) a requirement that students have successfully completed one academic year (approximately 30 credits) of study prior to participation in the field placement program;

     (7) opportunities for student reflection on their field placement experience, through a seminar, regularly scheduled tutorials, or other means of guided reflection. Where a student can earn four or more academic credits in the program for fieldwork, the seminar, tutorial, or other means of guided reflection must be provided contemporaneously.

Normally externship placements will be different from work placements available to students through an internal clinical course. Externship activities shall be approved in advance by the relevant faculty/staff member or externship director, an externship shall be periodically reviewed by the relevant faculty/staff member or externship director, and is subject to further review by the Dean and the law faculty.

(5) By June 15 of each year the externship director shall prepare a report on fulfillment of the academic plans for all external clinical courses. If no externship director is appointed, then the sponsor of each external clinical course shall report on the fulfillment of the academic plan for that course by June 15th of each year. This report or these reports shall be made available to the faculty.

(6) Normally a student will be expected to devote no less than 45 hours per semester on work in an internal or external clinical course for each credit awarded. Performance in an internal or external clinical course may be evaluated only as satisfactory/unsatisfactory.  The sponsor for an external clinical course, or the externship director, must approve the granting of credit and grade for each enrolled student.

3.15 Seminar Rules.

(1) Admission to a seminar requires authorization, normally via the preferencing process. Each student is limited to two seminars per semester, except upon receiving permission from the Dean.

(2) An instructor may limit enrollment in a seminar to 20 students. In joint seminars (conducted with other departments) ten law students more or less will be admitted.

(3) The granting of credit is contingent on completion of a research report in final form. Such reports must be completed by the end of the semester in which the seminar is given unless an extension of time is granted by the instructor.

(4) Examination at the end of the seminar is in the discretion of the instructor.

(5) The same attendance rules apply as in other courses.

3.16 Advance Standing for Law Students Pursuing Joint Programs in Law and Other Graduate Fields.

(1) A student is eligible for advanced standing credits if:

(a) the student is enrolled in a Ph.D. program at the University of Wisconsin.
(b) the student is admitted to the Law School.

(2) The Dean or the Dean's designee shall award an eligible student up to 15 credits toward law school graduation for work done in the student's University of Wisconsin graduate program if:

(a) the student has satisfied the conditions set forth in 3.16(3);
(b) the course work for which credit is to be given was, in the written opinion of the Dean or the Dean's designee and the student's law school advisor, of substantial relevance to the legal aspects of the student's joint program;
(c) the course work was taken pursuant to a plan approved by the law faculty advisor.

(3) No advanced standing credits shall be awarded until:

(a) the student has successfully completed the first year of law school at the University of Wisconsin;
(b) the student has been formally admitted to the Ph.D. portion of the graduate program in which he or she is enrolled although the graduate courses for which credit is given may have been taken prior to such admission;
(c) the student has a law school faculty advisor.

(4) The Dean or Dean's designee shall consult with interested law students who are enrolled in a graduate program in addition to law school to ascertain whether the student wishes to pursue a joint program combining the student's law and graduate studies. If the student wishes to pursue such a program, the Dean or the Dean's designee shall assist the student in finding a qualified faculty member to act as the law school advisor to the student.

(5) The law faculty advisor shall assist the student in planning a joint program so that the student can obtain the maximum benefit of the combined programs. The faculty advisor must recommend approval of any credits which the student receives as advance standing credits.

(6) Advanced standing credits awarded pursuant to 3.16(2) shall not count toward satisfying the requirements of Rule 3.01 or Rule 3.04.

(7)

(a) Students who become joint degree candidates after completing some graduate work may receive advance standing credit for graduate work done at the University of Wisconsin-Madison prior to becoming eligible as defined in 3.16(2) only:

(1) upon approval of a petition to the Dual Degree Committee with the written support of the Dean or the Dean's designee and the student's faculty adviser.
(2) upon a showing that such prior work was consistent with the joint degree idea and within the spirit of these rules;
(3) if the student is presently enrolled in the Ph.D. portion of his or her graduate program;
(4) if the work received at least a grade of AB if by University letter grade, 83 on the 65-95 scale, or B on the 4.3 scale; and
(5) if the work was taken within the two years prior to admission to law school.

(b) No student may receive under 3.16(7)(a) more than 15 credits toward law school graduation for work taken in the student's graduate department except that the Dual Degree Committee may award credits, which do not count as part of that 15, for law school work taken prior to admission to law school if such work received a number grade of 83 or better; and the committee in consultation with the Dean or the Dean's designee may accord such law school work whatever weight is appropriate toward satisfaction of any course requirements.

(8) A student receiving credit under this section who also receives any credits under rule 3.05(1) or 3.08 may not receive under all such rules more than 15 credits.

(9) Except as credits are awarded for work prior to law school admission under 3.16(7), all work which is to receive law school credit shall carry law school tuition charges.

3.17 Law & Philosophy Degree Program. Students interested in pursuing a joint program in Law & Philosophy which was approved by the Faculty on February 13, 1986, will be governed by Rule 3.16 and such policies as may be jointly developed by the Law School and the Philosophy Department. (Cross reference Faculty Meeting Minutes Feb. 27, 1986).

3.18 Law & Sociology (Ph.D.) Dual Degree Program.

(1) The Law School and Sociology Department hereby establish a dual degree program to operate under the rules and policies set forth in the Dual Degree Proposal of May 1992.

(2) Advanced standing credits in Law School for dual degree students shall be awarded pursuant to §3.16.

(3) With respect to first year electives under Rule 3.01(1), students in the dual degree program are subject to the rules of the Dual Degree Proposal of May 1992.

3.19 Certificates of Concentration.

Certificates of concentration in particular areas of studies may be established with the consent of the faculty if the following criteria are met:

1. Students must complete between 12 to 20 credits from a specified menu of selected courses.

2. Students must earn grades of 2.0 (C) or better in each law school course. Students must earn grades of B or better in each non-law course.

3. Students who maintain an average of 3.3 (B+) or better in all such courses will receive their certificates with Honors. For purposes of this section, students must earn an average of AB in all non-law courses.

4. The program may include as many as 10 credits outside the law school.

5. Absent compelling circumstances, students who do not complete the certificate program may apply only six credits of work outside the law school toward satisfaction of their J.D. requirements

(1) ENVIRONMENTAL LAW CERTIFICATE

A law student who completes the following course of study with an acceptable average shall receive a Certificate of Special Training in Environmental Law and Policy.

Prerequisites: All first-year courses and Constitutional Law I

Required Law School Work: 6 Credits

  • Environmental Law and Institutions
  • Land Use Controls

Required Non-Law Work: (three courses, 7- 10 credits)

Three non-law environmental courses taken from either category A or B. All three courses must be in one of the two categories to ensure a reasonable development of knowledge.

Category A

Basic Courses

  • Envir. St. /WI Ecol/ Zoology 360 Extinction of Species (3 cr.)
  • Botany/Forestry/Zoology 460 General Ecology (4 cr.)
  • Envir. St/Prev. Med. 502 Air Pollution and Human Health (3 cr.)
  • Envir. St./Env. Tox/Prev. Med 507 People, Chemicals, Environment (2 cr.)
  • Envir. St. 575 Analysis of Environmental Impact (3 cr.)

Advanced Courses

  • Envir. St./Botany/Forestry 461 Environmental Systems Concepts (3 cr.)
  • Atm. Ocn./ Physics/Envirn St. 472 Scientific Background to Global
  • Environmental Problems (3 cr.)

Category B

Basic Courses

  • Envir. St. /Econ 343 Environmental Economics (3 cr.)
  • Geog./Envir. St. 339 Environmental Conservation (4 cr.)
  • Urb. Reg. Pl./Econ./Envir. St./Poli.Sci. 449 Government and Natural Resources (3 cr.)
  • Hist. 460 Environmental History (3 cr.)

Advanced Courses

  • Urb. Reg. Pl./Envir. St. 843 Land Use Policy and Planning (3 cr.)
  • Urb. Reg. Pl./ Envir. St. 865 Water Resources Institutions and Policies (3 cr.)

Additional Elective Law Work: (4-8 credits)

Students must elect sufficient additional work from courses approved for the certificate so that they receive a minimum of 20 credits. The following courses and seminars are approved:

  • Seminar on International Environmental law (3 cr.)
  • Local Government Law (3 cr.)
  • Water Rights Law (3 cr.)

Other courses and seminars approved by the certificate coordinator should also be included.

Grade point requirements for the certificate:

A student must earn at least 20 credits in the foregoing courses and receive grades of 2.0 (C) or better in each law course, and B or better in the non-law courses.

Registration as a Candidate for the Certificate:

Students wishing to pursue a certificate program must register with the program coordinator no later than the start of the second semester of the second year in law school. Registration as a candidate for the certificate will ensure that the student may take up to 10 non-law credits in the courses indicated above and receive law school credit for that work. This exemption from the 6 credit rule applies even if the student does not otherwise qualify for the certificate at the time of graduation provided that all non-law credits are from within the categories identified above.

Certificates

The Law School will be responsible for the creation, production, and awarding of the Certificate of Special Training in Environmental Law and Policy to students who successfully complete the program. The Law School will notify the university Registrar when students complete their programs, and will supply the university Registrar's office with an up-to-date list of the certificate requirements. The student's transcript will be annotated at the time of completion of the program.

(2) CERTIFICATE IN RUSSIAN AREA STUDIES

1. Law Students may qualify for the Certificate in Russian, East European and Central Asian Studies administered by the Center for Russia, East Europe, and Central Asia by complying with the requirements established under that program.

2. The dean shall name a law faculty member to be the Law School advisor to law students seeking to earn a Certificate in Russian Area Studies.

3. Law students, with the written consent of the Law School advisor, may take up to 10 credits in non-law courses for credit toward their law degree in connection with seeking a certificate in Russian Area Studies provided:

a. the courses are part of the Certificate in Russian Area Studies program;

b. such courses are approved by the law school advisor as reasonably related to the legal education of a student; and

c. no other non-law school credits will count as credits for the JD degree (see rule 3.08).

(3) CERTIFICATE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW AND BUSINESS

To obtain a Certificate in International Law and Business, a law student must complete a minimum of 18 credits from the course list set forth below. At least nine of such credits must be obtained from the following list of law courses and at least six of such credits must be obtained from the following list of business school courses. Of the law courses, law students must take one of the two tax law courses listed in A1, one of the two international economic law courses listed in A2, and Business Organizations II.     

A. Mandatory Law School Courses

1) International Tax  3 credits  OR

Tax II  3 credits

2) International Trade Law 3 credits OR

International Business Transactions  2-3 credits

3) Business Organizations II  3 credits

(Note: Business Organizations I is not a prerequisite to Business Organizations II, but is strongly recommended.)

Additional Law School Courses: The following course may also go toward the 18 credit requirement:

  • Securities Regulation 3 credits
  • Corporate Finance 3 credits
  • Contracts II 3 credits
  • Antitrust Law 4 credits

Any other Law School class approved by the Director of the Law School's Global Legal Studies Center.

Mandatory Business School Courses

Any two of the following:

  • Business 745 Multinational Business Finance 3 credits
  • Business 755 International Operations 3 credits
  • Business 707 International Accounting 3 credits
  • Business 720 Global Marketing 3 credits
  • Business 730 International Real Estate 3 credits

Any other Business School class approved by the Director of the Law School's Global Legal Studies Center.

(4) CERTIFICATE IN CONSUMER HEALTH ADVOCACY

To obtain a Certificate in Consumer Health Advocacy, a law student must complete a minimum of 12 credits from courses which satisfy the following four key areas:

1.) Introductory advocacy methods (minimum 3 credits)

2.)  Advanced advocacy methods (minimum 3 credits)

3.) Health systems (minimum 3 credits), and

4.) Elective course in: law, regulations, ethics, health economics, policy, management or public health (minimum 3 credits).

A list of qualifying courses is available from the Center for Patient Partnerships, which administers this certificate. A law student must also complete a capstone paper or project and comply with the requirements established under the program.

Registration as a Candidate for the Certificate:

Students wishing to pursue the certificate must submit a Declaration of Intention form to the Center for Patient Partnerships.

Certificates

The Law School will notify the University Registrar when a student completes the program, so that the student's transcript can be annotated.

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